Some of the notes below cover potentiostats in general and others are for Gamry Instruments systems specifically. Click on a link below to download the PDF version of the Application or Technical Note.
Potentiostats are often required to work near the limits of their measurement ability. The Gamry Instruments Reference 600 can resolve current changes. Measurements of small currents place demands on the instrument, the cell, the cables, and the experimenter. Many of the techniques used in electrochemistry of larger currents must be modified when used to measure pA and fA currents. In many cases, the basic physics of the measurement must be considered.
Porous glass frit is often used at the end of a reference electrode or a bridge tube to allow electrical, ionic conductivity between the bulk of the solution and the internal filling solution, while preventing large scale convective mixing of the solutions.