Energy Storage and Conversion
Batteries, supercaps, fuel cells, and [dye sensitized] solar cells have some similar characteristics: they are low impedance devices with large surface areas often made using highly porous electrodes. So similar techniques are useful and similar issues can arise.
Porous electrodes offer a high surface area to volume or weight ratio which is highly beneficial to a number of energy generation or storage devices. Transmission lines are heavily used in modeling in Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) experiments where porous systems are employed.