The Reference 600 is a high-performance, research-grade potentiostat/galvanostat/ZRA designed for fast, low-current measurements. It does well for a variety of applications such as physical electrochemistry (especially at microelectrodes), fast cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical corrosion, electrochemical noise measurements, paints and coatings, and sensors.
It has a number of auxiliary input and outputs designed to help you interface or control ancillary equipment such as a rotating disc electrode. It also has a thermocouple for temperature measurements.
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
The Reference 600 comes fully equipped to perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Accuracy Contour Plot shown below provides a detailed look at the performance you can expect from your instrument in real-world situations. The results include the cell cable.
- Extended Cable Lengths
- Extended length cell cables (1.5 m, 3 m, 10 m) are also available for your convenience.
Below are additional details regarding the capabilities of the Reference 600 potentiostat. Each bullet point contains a list of the type of techniques available for the instrument to run.
- Physical Electrochemistry - Techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and chronopotentiometry and derivatives of these techniques.
- Pulse Voltammetry - Techniques such as pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and associated stripping techniques such as anodic stripping voltammetry.
- DC Corrosion - Run standard DC corrosion tests such as polarization resistance, potentiodynamic, cyclic polarization, and galvanic corrosion in addition to a number of others.
- Electrochemical Energy - Test single-cells and stacks of various batteries, fuel cells or supercapacitors. Includes charge, discharge, cyclic charge-discharge techniques, potentiostatic, galvanostatic, self-discharge, leakage rate, and read cell voltage.
- Electrochemical Signal Analyzer - Designed specifically for the acquisition and analysis of time-dependent electrochemical noise signals. Cell voltage and current are continuously monitored at rates from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz. A full featured set of analysis tools provides powerful analysis features such as statistical analysis, detrending, impedance spectra, and histogram analysis.
- Electrochemical Frequency Modulation - A non-destructive corrosion rate measurement technique. It allows for measurement of the corrosion rate without prior knowledge of the Tafel constants. In addition, the technique determines the Tafel constants and provides 2 internal validity checks.
- Critical Pitting Temperature - controls a Gamry Potentiostat, TDC4 Temperature Controller, and associated accessories to automatically measure the Critical Pitting Temperature of a material.
- Electrochemical Noise - A more general form of electrochemical noise testing. It is also an ECM8 Multiplexer compatible electrochemical noise software package.
- Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy - includes experimental scripts for potentiostatic, galvanostatic and hybrid impedance spectroscopy experiments in addition to single frequency techniques like Mott-Schottky. We also have our unique power-leveling multisine technique that improves signal-to-noise across the spectrum. On the analysis side, it provides tools for fitting spectra to equivalent circuit models, Kramers-Kronig transform for data validation and a graphical model editor. Our software even includes a script for EIS simulation.
- eChemAC - Includes full capabilities of eChemDC Toolkit plus allows electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and EFM experiments.
- 2, 3, and 4 electrode measurements
- Electrical Isolation
- Floating instrument: use with autoclaves, mechanical stress apparatus, or pipeline probes.
- Size of a chemistry textbook, weighing only 3 kgs (6.6 lbs). Easy USB 2.0 connection to a Windows computer.
- Built-In EIS
- On-board DDS to perform EIS from 10 µHz to 1 MHz.
- DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Mode
- Oversamples for improved signal-to-noise and accurate capacitance measurements.
- Current Interrupt and Positive Feedback iR Compensation
- Gamry potentiostats and their controlling software use control loop algorithms to accurately measure and correct for uncompensated resistance.
- Auxiliary I/O
- Control additional equipment via additional I/O interfaces: external signal input, analog voltage output, analog current output, auxiliary A/D input, and digital I/O connector.
- Protected by 2-year factory service warranty.
Specs and Images
|Zero Resistance Ammeter||YES|
|Cell Connections||2, 3, or 4|
|Floating (Isolated from Earth)||YES|
|9 (W) x 19 (H) x 27 (D) cm|
|Max Current||± 600 mA|
|Current Ranges||11 (60 pA - 600 mA)|
|Current Ranges (w/Internal
|13 (600 fA - 600 mA)|
|Min Voltage Resolution||1 μV|
|Min Current Resolution||20 aA|
|Max Applied Potential||± 11 V|
|Rise Time||<250 ns|
|Noise and Ripple||<10 μV rms|
|Noise and Ripple (typical)||<2 μV rms|
|Min Time Base||3.333 μs|
|Max Time Base||715 s|
|Min Potential Step||12.5 μV|
|Frequency Range||10 μHz - 1 MHz|
|EIS Accuracy||See Accuracy
|Max AC Amplitude||
3 V max
|Compliance Voltage||± 22 V|
|Output Current||> ± 600 mA|
|Unity Gain Bandwidth||980, 260, 40, 4, 0.4 kHz|
|Input Impedance||>1014 Ω|
|Input Current||<5 pA|
|Input Current (typical)||<2 pA|
|Bandwidth (-3dB) (typical)||>15 MHz|
|Common Mode Rejection Ratio||>80 dB (3 Hz)
>60 dB (1 MHz)
|Accuracy||± 1 mV ± 0.2% of setting|
|Accuracy (typical)||± 375 μV ± 0.04% of reading|
|Resolution||12.5 μV, 50 μV, 200 μV/bit|
|Potential Scan Range||± 0.4 V, ± 1.6 V, ± 6.4 V|
|Accuracy||± 1 mV ± 0.2% of reading|
|Accuracy (typical)||± 250 μV ± 0.05% of reading|
|Full-Scale Ranges||12 V, 3 V, 300 mV, 30 mV|
|Resolution||400 μV, 100 μV, 10 μV, 1 μV/bit|
|Offset Range||± 10 V|
|Applied/Measured Accuracy||± 10 pA ± 0.05% of range
± 0.2% of value (600 mA-6 nA)
or 0.75% of value (600 pA)
or 1.5% of value (60 pA)
|Applied/Measured Resolution||0.0033% full-scale/bit|
|Bandwidth (-3 dB)
NOTE: Bandwidth is current
|> 10 MHz (600 mA - 600 μA)
> 1.5 MHz (60 μA)
> 0.15 MHz (6 μA)
|Post Offset Gain||1, 10, 100|
|Offset Range||± 1X full-scale|
|Mode||Current Interrupt and
|Min Interrupt Time||33 μs|
|Max Interrupt Time||715 s|
AUXILIARY A/D INPUT
|Range||± 3 V|
|Input Impedance||>100 kΩ or >10 GΩ|
AUXILIARY D/A OUTPUT
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